Nobel prize for elucidating the molecular structure of dna

If the latter procedure is followed, homogenization is often carried out in a medium containing a high concentration of the sugar sucrose, which provides a milieu favourable for maintaining the integrity of cellular components.

The components are recovered by careful spinning in a centrifuge, at a series of increasing speeds.

The sliced-tissue technique was successfully used by the Nobel Prize winner Sir Hans Krebs in his pioneer studies in the early 1930s on the mechanism of urea formation in the liver.

Because detailed information about the mechanisms of component enzymatic steps in any metabolic pathway cannot be obtained from studies with whole organisms or tissues, various techniques have been developed for studying these processes—e.g., sliced tissues, and homogenates and cell-free extracts, which are produced by physical disruption of the cells and the removal of cell walls and other debris.The high rates of turnover observed in liver and gut tissues indicate that the coarse controls, exerted through the onset and cessation of synthesis of pacemaker enzymes, do occur in animal cells.Finally, genetically altered organisms (mutants) fail to synthesize certain enzymes in an active form.There are two main reasons for studying a metabolic pathway: (1) to describe, in quantitative terms, the chemical changes catalyzed by the component enzymes of the route; and (2) to describe the various intracellular controls that govern the rate at which the pathway functions.Studies with whole organisms or organs can provide information that one substance is converted to another and that this process is localized in a certain tissue; for example, experiments can show that urea, the chief nitrogen-containing end product of protein metabolism in mammals, is formed exclusively in the liver.

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